Reports of shoulder dysfunction following inactivated influenza vaccine in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 2010- 2016

https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/meetings/downloads/slides-2017-10/vaccine-safety-03-shimabukuro-508.pdf

 

Background: shoulder
injury f
ollowing vaccination
1
Shoulder injury related to vaccine administration (SIRVA)
m
anifests as
shoulder pain and limited range of motion occurring after the
administration of a vaccine intended for intramuscular administration in
the upper
arm
These
s
ymptoms are thought to occur as a result of unintended injection
of vaccine antigen or trauma from the needle into and around the
underlying bursa of the shoulder resulting in an inflammatory
reaction
[B
y definition] SIRVA
is caused by an injury to the musculoskeletal
structures of the shoulder
(e.g. tendons, ligaments,
bursae
, etc
.)
SIRVA
i
s not a neurological injury
and abnormalities on neurological
examination or nerve conduction studies (NCS) and/or
electromyographic
(EMG) studies would not support SIRVA as a diagnosis (even if the
condition causing the neurological abnormality is not known)

SIRVA – Gold Law Firm, Vaccine Injury Lawyers, files Petition for Compensation

Gold Law Firm, LLC, a national vaccine injury law firm recently filed a vaccine petition for a 63-year old Georgia woman who had a severe vaccine injury reaction to the Flu Vaccine resulting in SIRVA, shoulder injury related to vaccine administration. The case, filed in the Court of Federal Claims in Washington, D.C., sought recovery under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

“This case is a striking example of the injuries and adverse reactions that can occur as a result of vaccinations,” says Howard Gold, a leading Vaccine Injury lawyer.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the flu vaccine is designed to protect young and old alike from contracting the Flu, which can have devastating effects on the infirmed and elderly and can be debilitating to otherwise healthy individuals, leading to more severe conditions, including Pneumonia.

In this most recent case, 18-vv-17441v. SECRETARY OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, the Petitioner received the Flu Vaccine and immediately thereafter began to experience pain in her left shoulder and arm.   After a somewhat lengthy process, that involved x-rays, MRI’s and other scans,  she was diagnosed with SIRVA. and required steroid injections and physical therapy. (Learn more about SIRVA and shoulder injuries here https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/meetings/downloads/slides-2017-10/vaccine-safety-03-shimabukuro-508.pdf) She has made an incomplete recovery and continues to have residual pain from her flu vaccine injury. SIRVA and other reactions are continually reported to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) as occurring after the Flu Vaccine. See, http://www.vaers.hhs.gov. “I strongly believe that children and adults alike should be receiving all of their mandatory vaccinations. However, it’s important to talk to your health care practitioner about the risks,” states Gold, who has been handling Vaccine cases for 20 years.

Gold, a vaccine injury lawyer and head of the Gold Law Firm, a national vaccine injury law firm also says that there is nothing inherently wrong with the Flu Vaccine but that each person is different and reacts differently to each vaccination. That is why it’s essential that the public be aware of a Program intended to compensate them if they do, in fact, suffer a vaccine injury.

Petitioners have three (3) years from the onset of the injury (or two years from date of death) to file a claim. Gold states that the “Program is not used as much as it could be because the American public is just not aware of it. I receive at least 5 calls a month from individuals who cannot obtain compensation because the deadline has passed. They just found out about it too late. We all need to do a better job in getting the word out to the public that the Program exists.”

About Gold Law Firm, LLC.

Gold Law Firm, LLC.  has been successful in helping individuals obtain vaccine injury compensation for cases of SIRVA linked to vaccinations.  If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with SIRVA following a vaccination, contact Gold Law Firm today.  Gold Law Firm are experts in helping individuals before the United States Court of Federal Claims (Vaccine Court) in the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.  Our fees are paid by the Program, which means that our representation of your vaccine injury claim will come at no financial cost to you.  To learn more about how to obtain compensation for SIRVA or other vaccine injuries, visit www.goldlawfirm.net or call 781-239-1000.  Vaccine Injury attorney Howard Gold is available to speak with you today.  Vaccine injuries are rare, but real. Speak to a vaccine injury lawyer today.

Contact
Howard Gold, Esquire
hgold@goldlawfirm.net
7812391000

Advantages of Supermarket and Pharmacy Vaccinations

While easy access to affordable health care, including vaccinations, is widely considered to be a good thing…does this drive thru vaccine business lead to more vaccine injuries?

 

Over the next several weeks, we will exam whether the rate of vaccine injuries including SIRVA (shoulder injuries resulting from vaccine administration) are higher outside of traditional medical providers.

 

In the event you have sufferend a vaccine injury, please contact Gold Law Firm, LLC.  Vaccine Injury is all we do.

Vaccines save lives…it’s just the facts.

I would urge every American and any person around the world who is a science-denier, who recklessly spreads fear about the safety of vaccines, to read this remarkable article by Dr. Peter Hotez.

Peter is one of the most renowned vaccine researchers, formerly of the George Washington University and now Dean for Baylor College of Medicine’s National School of Tropical Medicine.

In this article, Dr. Hotez, unsurprisingly for a scientist schooled in…facts…states unequivocally that vaccines do not cause autism.  The remarkable part of this remarkable families story, is the Dr. Hotez’ daughter Rachel, has an autism spectrum disorder.

So the next time someone foolishly echoes conspiracy theories about vaccines or ignorant public officials raise the specter of autism being triggered by a vaccination just remember it ain’t so.  And you can quote Peter Hotez on that.

 

++++++++++++++++++++++++++

https://nypost.com/2018/10/22/researcher-with-autistic-daughter-anti-vaxxers-need-to-get-a-clue/?utm_source=facebook_sitebuttons&utm_medium=site%20buttons&utm_campaign=site%20buttons

Latest Vaccine Injury Compensation Program Data

https://www.hrsa.gov/sites/default/files/hrsa/vaccine-compensation/data/monthly-stats-aug-2018.pdf

 

Data & Statistics
The United States has the safest, most effective vaccine supply in history. In the majority of cases, vaccines cause no side effects, however they can occur, as with any medication —but most are mild. Very rarely, people experience more serious side effects, like allergic reactions.

Transverse Myelitis and Autoimmunity

 Transverse Myelitis and Vaccine-Induced Autoimmunity

  • Transverse Myelitis (TM) is a neurological disorder that damages the substance that surrounds and insulates nerves called myelin.
  • Inflammation initiated by infections, vaccinations, and other immunity or vascular disorders causes TM.
  • There is no cure for TM, but many therapies exist to treat the underlying causes of TM as well as rehabilitate individuals’ quality of life.

Vaccine injury compensation programs exist because disease poses financial as well as physical stress on people. Transverse myelitis is an example of a disease that requires extensive treatment and extended rehabilitation. So, seeking compensation with the help of a vaccine law firm when a disease is caused by a vaccine can be a great help during an already difficult time.

This article covers the following topics to provide an informative overview of Transverse Myelitis:

  • What is Transverse Myelitis?
  • Causes of Transverse Myelitis and its Risk Factors
  • Challenges of Living with Transverse Myelitis
  • How Transverse Myelitis Is Treated

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

What is Transverse Myelitis?

Transverse Myelitis, or TM, is an inflammatory, neurological disease. This disorder arises from one section of the spinal cord becoming inflamed. With only one section of the spinal cord affected, TM often produces a loss of sensation across a specific area of the upper body just below the site of inflammatory. “Transverse” describes the affected area forming a band-like pattern whereas “myelitis” describes where this disease causes the most damage.

The nerves of the spinal cord extend outward and course through body tissues to carry out their many functions. In order to ensure efficient communication between the brain and tissues via the nerves, nerves are insulated with a fatty substance called myelin. Well, TM actually deteriorates myelin thereby eliminating nerves’ insulation. As a result, the relay of information between the brain and tissues is interrupted and severely compromised leading to a host of neurological symptoms.

Causes of Transverse Myelitis and its Risk Factors

It is possible for transverse myelitis to arise on its own without cause aside from excessive immune system activity that induces inflammation and myelin damage. This form of TM is called idiopathic transverse myelitis. Infections, disorders of the immune system, and any inflammatory or vascular disorder that damages myelin can cause TM. These include:

  • Bacterial infections, such as actinomyces, Lyme disease, pertussis, tetanus, diphtheria, syphilis, tuberculosis, campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis, mycoplasma bacterial pneumonia, and even infections of the skin or middle-ear.

 

  • Fungal infections that can invade the spinal cord like Aspergillus, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, and Cryptococcus.

 

  • Parasitical infections with Angtiostrongyloides, Cysticercosis, Shistosomiasis, and Toxoplasmosis.

 

  • Viral infections like herpes simplex, varicella zoster, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, West Nile virus, Zika virus, influenza, echovirus, hepatitis B, mumps, measles, and rubella.

 

  • Immune system disorders, like autoimmunity, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, and an abnormal, underlying cancer response.

 

  • Inflammatory disorders which consist of Bechet’s syndrome, lupus, mixed connective tissue disease, sarcoidosis, scleroderma, and Sjogren’s syndrome.

 

  • Vascular disorders, namely arteriovenous malformation, disk embolism, dural arterial-venous fistula, and intraspinal cavernous malformations.

The autoimmunity mentioned above can be triggered by vaccinations, specifically vaccinations for influenza and Hepatitis B boosters, and within six weeks of the vaccination. In one unique case, Transverse Myelitis and Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome developed overlapping symptoms following Tdap vaccination. Studies show that TM can also arise as a symptom of multiple sclerosis. Vascular disorders cause TM indirectly by restricting blood flow to the spinal cord as opposed to triggering inflammation. Consequently, this imposes stroke-like effects on the spinal cord.

Diagnosing Transverse Myelitis begins with a medical professional getting a full medical history and conducting a neurological physical examination. Evaluating the spinal cord in this manner allows other conditions, like trauma, herniated discs, stenosis, abscesses, or vitamin deficiencies, to be ruled out. Subsequent diagnostic tests consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), lumbar puncture (sometimes called a spinal tap), and blood tests are administered to not only confirm the TM diagnosis, but also its cause. The MRI and CT can reveal inflammation whereas the lumbar puncture and blood tests will reveal the presence of an infection, immune system disorder, or vascular disorder.

Challenges of Living with Transverse Myelitis

A notable sign of TM is that any of the symptoms listed below may develop relatively quickly in a matter of hours or longer periods of time, such as days and weeks. The overall decline in function of the nervous system typically lasts 4 to 21 days. However, the majority of cases (80 percent) experience their greatest point of decline at 10 days.

Symptoms of transverse myelitis include:

  • Anxiety
  • Bowel incontinence
  • Breathing issues
  • Burning sensations (also known as paresthesias)
  • Constipation
  • Depression
  • Difficulty urinating or passing bowels
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Loss of appetite
  • Muscle spasms
  • Numbness
  • Pain or discomfort
  • Progressive paralysis
  • Sensory loss to pain and temperature
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Tingling
  • Urgency to urinate
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Weakness in the extremities, but usually the legs

For half of individuals diagnosed with TM, the greatest point of decline is total paralysis in both legs. Loss of sensation below a band of the upper body, burning sensations, and numbness make up the symptoms that 80 to 94 percent of people with TM experience whereas practically everyone diagnosed with TM has some issue with their bladder.

Transverse Myelitis affects all genders, ages, and races. While research has yet to determine a genetic or hereditary predisposition for TM, new cases of TM do seem to spike among two specific age groups: 10 to 19 years of age and 30 to 39 years of age. In the United States alone, around 1,400 new cases of TM are diagnosed annually.

How Transverse Myelitis Is Treated

Unfortunately, full recovery from TM is rare, as even minor symptoms usually remain after treatment and TM often recurs in diagnosed individuals. Following treatment, about one-third of individuals recover with minor symptoms, another third recovers with a moderate disability, and the final third recovers with a severe disability. Despite the outcome, recovery time lasts anywhere from months to years.

Treatments for transverse myelitis vary, but mainly aim to address the cause of TM. For instance:

  • Corticosteroid drugs are given intravenously to reduce inflammation and swelling around the affected spinal cord segment. This treatment usually lasts for three to seven days but may be given subsequently to prevent TM recurrence.
  • Plasma exchange therapy is another option for people who do not have success with corticosteroid drugs. Plasma exchange removes plasma along with the antibodies and proteins it contains to relieve excessive immune system activity and its associated inflammation.
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) takes antibodies from healthy individuals and delivers them intravenously to individuals with TM to catch the antibodies causing TM and inhibit them from causing further damage.

Other medications may be prescribed as needed to fight infection, relieve muscle pain or stiffness, address bladder or bowel complaints, reverse sexual dysfunction, and treat depression or anxiety. Additionally, people living with multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica require ongoing treatment to limit or control TM recurrence.

Different forms of rehabilitative therapy, including physical therapy, occupational therapy, vocational therapy, and psychotherapy, are especially necessary for people recovering from TM. Rehabilitative therapy helps individuals restore what quality of life may have been lost or temporarily disturbed by TM symptoms and progression.

There is no cure for TM, but these treatments have proven effective while researchers continue to study this neurological disorder. If you believe you developed transverse myelitis after receiving a vaccination, then contact Gold Law Firm today to speak with a vaccine attorney about your options for compensation.

References

Chandra, A., Rajbhandari, R., Acharya, S.,…Pant, B. (2017). Vaccine induced acute transverse myelitis: Case report. Journal of Neurology & Stroke, 6(2): 00197. DOI: 10.15406/jnsk.2017.06.00197

Grebenciucova, E. (2017, August). Transverse myelitis 101. Retrieved from https://myelitis.org/transverse-myelitis-101/

Lynn, D. J., Levy, C., Kaplin, A.,…Kerr, D. (2015). Transvere myelitis. Retrieved from National Organization for Rare Disorders at https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/transverse-myelitis/

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2017, November). Transverse myelitis. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/transverse-myelitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20354726

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2018, July). Transverse myelitis fact sheet. Retrieved from https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Transverse-Myelitis-Fact-Sheet

National Multiple Sclerosis Society. (n.d.). Transverse myelitis. Retrieved from https://www.nationalmssociety.org/What-is-MS/Related-Conditions/Transverse-Myelitis

Shah, S., Patel, J., Alchaki, A. R.,…Souayah, N. (2018). Development of transverse myelitis after vaccination, a CDC/FDA vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS) study, 1985-2017. Neurology, 90(15).

Singh, D., Tisovic, K., & Harth, C. E. (2018). Unique presentation of acquired longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis and GBS overlap syndrome following Tdap vaccination. Neurology, 90(15).

Alternative Treatments for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) – a vaccine injury

Multiple Sclerosis
Today there is increasing interest in that the use of medical cannabis for treating everything from cancer to menstrual cramps along with migraine headaches. Individuals who would not be caught dead using cannabis are now intrigued in medical cannabis because it might have the ability to save their lives. Medical experts worldwide used cannabis for millennia to treat any number of ailments. Contemporary medication men are begrudgingly beginning to admit medical cannabis can aid in the cure and treatment of several ailments. Marijuana, or more correctly Cannabis Sativa, has been used because of its medical properties for over 5, 000 years.

In the 28th Century B.C. The Chinese Emperor Shen Nung prescribed cannabis for gout, beriberi, constipation, female weakness rheumatism and malaria among other ailments. In 2, 000 B.C. Physicians in Egypt were prescribing cannabis for eye problems. In India in 1, 000 B.C. Cannabis has been used as an anesthesia along with an anti phlegmatic along with Hoa Tho, a 2nd Century A.D. Chinese doctor is reported to used cannabis as an analgesic during surgery. Today in many portions of India and particularly in Ayer Vedas medicine cannabis is utilized to treat a broad range of ailments. Additionally, it is used as a stimulant, an analgesic, an anti hemorrhoidal and an antispasmodic.

One might infer cannabis is just utilized in high-income countries without a knowledge of contemporary medical practices, But one will be wrong. Napoleon’s military used it to cure burns, as a stimulant and as a pain reliever. In the US in 1961 that the National Institute of Mental Health did a study that suggested cannabis may be utilized for epilepsy, baby convulsions, therapy of tetanus, convulsions of rabies, therapy of depression, as a stimulant and hypnotic in relieving nervousness and has antibiotic properties. Today physicians prescribe medical cannabis to arouse the appetite of AIDS patients, cure glaucoma and multiple sclerosis and decrease nausea for cancer sufferers.

The British House of Lords at a 2001 report said cannabis may be used to treat migraine headaches, asthma, schizophrenia, arthritis, multiple sclerosis and general pain. Doctors also acknowledge it might help to treat high blood pressure level. There’s a major movement, especially in California, to make medical cannabis readily available to patients through medical cannabis stores. California medical cannabis dispensaries and medical cannabis clinics, many of that are run by medical cannabis collectives and cannabis physicians, seek to make medical cannabis available to sufferers with medical weed cards that legally allow them to receive medical cannabis strains to treat a wide range of illnesses. Medical cannabis is really becoming a herb for that the healing of that the country. Canna Medbox being a drug delivery system is that the most legally compliant and cost efficient way to obtain your medicine.

Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome: A Commonly Overlooked Vaccine Injury

Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome: A Commonly Overlooked Vaccine Injury

  • Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome (GBS) is a neuromuscular disease that damages peripheral nerves.
  • GBS can develop following a viral infection or vaccination.
  • There is no cure for GBS, but treatments are available to slow the disease and prevent fatality.

Like many medical interventions, vaccinations pose some risk of injury. While most individuals do not suffer injuries from vaccines, some individuals are more susceptible to experiencing less severe conditions, like swelling, redness, and fever; or, more severe conditions like Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome. For these reasons, vaccine injury compensation programs as well as vaccine law firms have been established to compensate victims of vaccine injury.

Of course, the first step before seeking compensation is to determine whether a vaccine injury has been sustained. This article provides a helpful overview of a commonly overlooked vaccine injury, Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome, by discussing:

  • What is Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome?
  • What are the main types of Guillain-Barre’ syndrome?
  • Causes of Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome and its Risk Factors
  • Challenges of Living with Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome
  • How Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome Is Treated

______________________________________________________________________________

What is Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome?

Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome, or GBS, is an immune disorder in which the immune system is triggered to attack nerve cells resulting in significant muscle weakness, disability, and possible paralysis. Since GBS initially attacks the peripheral nerves, which run outside of the brain and spinal cord, individuals usually experience numbness or tingling in the legs first that then travels up to the arms, cranial nerves, and muscles engaged in respiration. This upward progression helps distinguish GBS from other forms of muscle weakness, like botulinum poisoning, which progresses down the body. Most people who develop GBS fully recover from these effects while others suffer long-term nerve damage in the form of chronic weakness, numbness, or fatigue.

The effects of GBS on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems represent this condition’s greatest risks of fatality. Accordingly, people living with GBS must stay under the care of a medical professional from diagnosis and throughout their recovery period. Although Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome can develop in any age group, it more commonly affects older adults. In fact, new cases of GBS increase with age placing people over the age of 50 at the greatest risk of developing GBS. As for younger individuals, when GBS arises it tends to be among young adult men.

What are the main types of Guillain-Barre’ syndrome?

Guillain-Barre’ syndrome can present multiple ways. However, these are the main presentations:

  • Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP)

This is the most common form of GBS in the United States that damages the insulation called myelin surrounding nerve axons in a process referred to as demyelination and disrupts signal transmission.

  • Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS)

This form of GBS is more common in Asia with some cases in the United States. It differs in that it paralyzes the eye muscles first and then produces an unstable walking pattern.

  • Acute Motor Axonal Neuropathy (AMAN) and Acute Motor-Sensory Axonal Neuropathy (AMSAN)

Mostly seen in China, Japan, and Mexico, this GBS form damages nerve axons directly causing mobility issues and a decrease in sensory function.

Causes of Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome and its Risk Factors

Researchers have yet to determine what causes GBS, but several factors can place people at risk of developing this condition. These factors trigger Guillain-Barre’ most likely via their ability to activate the immune system:

  • Childhood vaccinations
  • Influenza (flu) vaccinations
  • Influenza virus
  • Campylobacter (bacterial) infection
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Epstein-Barr virus
  • Hepatitis A, B, C, and E
  • Hodgkin’s lymphoma
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
  • Mycoplasma pneumonia
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Zika virus

Approximately 3,000 to 6,000 people develop GBS each year in the United States and two-thirds of those people start experiencing symptoms within days to weeks of undergoing one of the conditions above. Individuals must be tested for GBS in order to rule out other neurological diseases that sometimes mimic GBS including: cauda equina syndromes, nutritional deficiency-triggered acute neuropathies, critical illness, blood malignancy, and vasculitis. GBS diagnosis is typically confirmed with a neurological examination that reveals a decline in deep tendon reflexes.

Challenges of Living with Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome

Because Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome affects the nerves, complications of this disorder are typically neurologically-related. For this reason, people living with GBS may experience any of the following:

  • Bedsores

GBS disables the body and leaves many individuals confined to bed. Without consistent body rotation, this immobility can cause people with GBS to develop bedsores.

  • Blood clots

Immobility caused by GBS also increases individuals’ risk of forming blood clots, thus blood thinners and compression stockings often become part of their treatment regimen.

  • Cardiac arrhythmia and unstable blood pressure

Without reliable regulation via neurological control, the body loses its ability to stabilize heartbeat and regulate blood pressure.

  • Difficulty breathing

As a result of weakness or paralysis of the breathing muscles, as much as 30% of people living with GBS must rely on a ventilator to breathe.

  • Nerve pain

Nearly 50% of people living with GBS suffer from severe nerve pain and require medication for relief.

  • Numbness and tingling

This is the first indicator of nerve damage, usually in the legs, and only grows worse as the condition progresses.

  • Trouble passing urine and moving bowels

Thanks to compromised nerves, waste excretion is also disturbed resulting in constipation and urine retention.

How Guillain-Barre’ Syndrome Is Treated

Considering the invasiveness of GBS, it is recommended that people living with GBS be hospitalized to facilitate close monitoring. Hospitalization ensures supportive care for the patient consisting of ventilation use as well as heart function and blood pressure data collection. Likewise, should more acute complications arise, such as a blood clot or abnormal heartbeat, the patient can receive prompt care.

While there is no cure for GBS, treatment can alleviate symptoms, prevent complications, and limit the condition’s severity. Typical treatments include immunotherapy, which removes antibodies from the blood and therefore slows damage to nerve cells, and rehabilitation, which supports individuals’ mobility by strengthening the muscles and keeping them active. In severe GBS cases when nerve damage is rapid, blood transfusion has been utilized and proven effective as well.

If you have been diagnosed with GBS and you believe it resulted from a vaccination, contact Gold Law Firm, LLC at www.goldlawfirm.net and info@goldlawfirm.net today to speak with a vaccine attorney about your options for compensation.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. (2017, November). Guillain-Barre’ syndrome and flu vaccine. Retrieved from CDC at https://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/vaccine/guillainbarre.htm

Khadilkar S.V., Yadav R.S., & Patel B.A. (2018). Guillain–Barré syndrome. Neuromuscular Disorders, 403-419. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-5361-0_36

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2018, May). Guillain-Barre syndrome. Retrieved from Mayo Clinic at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/guillain-barre-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20362793

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2018, June). Guillain-Barre’ syndrome fact sheet. Retrieved from National Institutes of Health at https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Guillain-Barr%C3%A9-Syndrome-Fact-Sheet#3139_6

Rinaldi, S. (2017). Guillain-Barre’ syndrome. Acute Medicine, 5(71). https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119389613.ch71

World Health Organization [WHO]. (2016, October). Guillain-Barre’ syndrome. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/guillain-barr%C3%A9-syndrome